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留学生论文研究国内问题范文:Enhancing Competitive Abilities for Airline Companies

超级管理员 2022-03-16 22:07:30 留学生论文 761 ℃

本文是留学生研究国内问题论文范例,题目是“Enhancing Competitive Abilities for Airline Companies(提高航空公司的竞争力)”,本研究调查了中国国航在中美签订开放天空协议后所面临的战略、绩效和学习问题。本文采用美国联合航空公司的比较视角,在“开放天空”的背景下考察中国国航和中国航空业,并与更广泛的全球航空业进行对比。这是一项基于问卷调查的研究,使用定性和定量数据,但更多地依赖后者。本研究的范围和影响有限,主要是由于样本量小,并因此无法使用推断统计。该研究就战略方向和选择提供了一些重点建议,这些建议可能会增强国航作为国际企业的增长和业绩。
Case of Air China国航案例
Abstract摘要
This study examines the strategic, performance and learning issues confronting the Air China, in the aftermath of the Open Skies agreement between China and the United States. It uses a comparative perspective of United Airlines to examine Air China and the Chinese airline industry in context of ‘open skies’, and in contrast to the wider global airlines industry. This is a questionnaire based study that uses both qualitative and quantitative data but relies more on the latter. The study is limited in its scope and implications primarily due to a small sample size, and the resulting inability to use inferential statistics. The study provides some focused recommendations on strategic thrusts and choices that could augment Air China’s growth and performance as an international player.

 留学生论文范例
留学生论文范例

Chapter 1: Introduction第一章:介绍
1.1 Background背景
In the year 2008 the aviation industry forecasts show that Air China is the only Chinese airline that is likely to make a profit. Even Air China – the Chinese flagship airline has been underperforming on international routes for some time now. While air travel is increasing on the backs of economic growth and the Olympic Games, fuel prices and competition under the ambits of international agreements like the ‘open skies’ between the US and China seem to have found Chinese airlines on the back foot for the moment. The fast expansion of the Chinese aviation market has seen investment flow in and international parties becoming interested as partners, investors and competitors in the sector. Chinese Airlines have responded with forays such as exploring alliancing, and strategic restructuring to respond to this duality of opportunity and threat.
2008年航空业预测显示,国航是中国唯一一家可能盈利的航空公司。就连中国的旗舰航空公司——中国国航(Air China)在国际航线上的表现也不佳,已经有一段时间了。随着经济增长和奥运会的举办,航空旅行正在增加,但在美国和中国之间的“开放天空”等国际协议的框架下,燃油价格和竞争似乎让中国航空公司暂时处于不利地位。中国航空市场的快速扩张,吸引了大量投资,同时,国际社会也开始对该领域的合作伙伴、投资者和竞争对手感兴趣。为了应对这种机遇与威胁的二元性,中国航空公司已经采取了一系列举措,比如探索联盟和战略重组。
 
The open skies agreement in general implies “unrestricted access by any carrier into the sovereign territory of a country without any written agreement specifying capacity, ports of call or schedule of services” (Murali, 2005). Thus, theoretically, when the skies are open, any foreign airline can land any aircraft at any airport, with no restrictions on frequency and seat capacity. The frame of reference for the US China open skies agreement is the central provinces of Anhui, Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Henan, and Shanxi. As per the terms of the agreement they are completely open to US airlines. Being open to the American enterprise means generous funds flow but harnessing this implies capturing the air routes and the passenger traffic. Major US airlines including the United maneuver to do this with their greater experience, resources and air traffic exposure alongside Chinese airlines. The latter have the advantage of being domestic players and thus have the local advantages that come with the same (Ahmed et al, 2006). Coordination and configuration issues also affect highly transnational international airlines in both positive and negative ways (Porter, 1985, 1986). One is by having greater experience of reaching out to new markets and the other is inevitable increasing challenge of synthesis and adjustment as each fresh market is encountered. The domestic flagship carrier Air China also has the advantage of national prestige just like Lufthansa has for Germany and British airways for Great Britain: “Air China is the only airline company which carries the national flag to fly. It has the first rank of brand value among domestic airline companies (the world brand laboratory evaluated it in 2006 as 18.896 billion RMB), and it is among the leading position of air passenger transport, freight transport and related service” (airchina.com, 2008). The advantage shows in it being at least better performing than other domestic airlines.
 
However, the international experience and resource strength of players like the United Airlines is considerable. United operates more than 3,700 flights a day on United, United Express and Ted SM to more than 210 U.S. domestic and international destinations from its hubs in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, Chicago and Washington, D.C hubs (AsiaTravel.com, 2007). With key global air rights in the Asia-Pacific region, Europe and Latin America, United is one of the largest international carriers based in the United States. United is also a founding member of Star Alliance
 
With the Star alliance, United is clearly in elite company where international code sharing, passenger traffic movements, innovations, and control of international hubs are the forte of a group of heavily resourced carriers. International alliancing is rather nascent as a strategy in the case of Chinese airlines with Air China having but recently joined the Star Alliance. Furthermore, within the Star Alliance also competition is not nullified among alliance partners. With the squabbling over alliances in domestic market viz. between Air China and China Eastern Airlines, the market seems dangerously susceptible to foreign takeovers unless either performance improves or government takes safety measures through anti-trust clamp down. The trust in a government safety net have often resulted in airlines facing major crisis like for instance, the German carrier Lufthansa in 1990s where a leadership change and strategic turnaround of a seminal nature were required to save it (Mintzberg et al, 2003). With the domestic carriers making a loss even for the flagship carrier Air China it is imperative to make sure that it does not sit easy on its asset of existing brand recognition that stems primarily from carrying the national flag.
 
It is reported, at present in the Chinese and American aviation routes, the domestic operators is relatively disadvantaged. Neither the passenger transportation nor freight transportation have been able to raise profits and even made losses, the situation being particularly acute in the Chinese context. Low occupancy in flights returning from the United Stated is just one reason among other operational and strategic aspects like fuel prices, customer preferences, quality perceptions, pricing, and alliancing effects, to name a few(ATKearney, 2008). Since the open skies agreement the need to strengthen the Chinese airlines competitive position has been seen as key to both the airline industry and to the validation of the strategic intent of China to successfully globalize its key industries.
 
1.2 Motivation动力
The aviation agreement between China and the US signals the intention of the Chinese Government to take on global competition for larger gains. With a five fold increase in airline frequency proposed over six years commencing the onset of the agreement in 2004 it is probably the right juncture to examine the state of the Chinese airline industry in the aftermath of this strategic drive. Air China being the flagship carrier makes for an ideal setting to be examined with a comparative frame of reference of United Airlines of the United States. The agenda is to look at strategies, performance, and impact across a range of indicators to reflect on competitive performance, and issues therein for the Chinese aviation industry. The perspective of the China US agreement is also a case that has implications for other open skies agreements that China has entered into like with the European Union in 2005. The consequences of China’s opening up and joining the World Trade Organization in 2001 are also implied in issues, challenges and performance related reflections that are to stem from this study. The motivation for this study in its chosen research site of Air China, in a comparative reference with united airlines in the main, and under the US-China open skies agreement is thus of great relevance to industry and economic scenario.
中美之间的航空协议标志着中国政府为获得更大利益而参与全球竞争的意图。自2004年协议生效以来,中国的航空班次将在6年内增加5倍。在这一战略推动之后,审视中国航空业的现状,或许是一个恰当的时机。作为旗舰航空公司,中国国际航空公司为以美国联合航空公司为比较参考框架进行研究提供了一个理想的环境。会议的议程是通过一系列指标来考察战略、绩效和影响,以反映中国航空业的竞争绩效和其中存在的问题。中美协议的前景,也会对中国在2005年与欧盟(eu)达成的其他开放天空协议产生影响。本研究的问题、挑战和绩效相关思考也暗示了中国2001年对外开放和加入世界贸易组织的后果。本研究选择中国国际航空公司作为研究地点,与主要的联合航空公司进行比较,并根据中美开放天空协议,因此与行业和经济情景有很大的相关性。
 
1.3 Research Questions
In light of the aforesaid the following research questions will deliver the examination of Chinese Airline industry. This in context of the open skies agreement using the case of Air China in the main, with a comparative reference to United Airlines, and with a view to generate implications for the Chinese aviation industry as a whole.
 
What has been Air China’s strategy in light of the open skies agreement?
What are the issues affecting the performance of Air China in particular and of the Chinese airlines in general, in the aftermath of the open skies agreement?
What are the issues affecting Air China’s global brand development and recognition?
What are the lessons that Air China can draw from United Airlines as a sample of what the Chinese airline industry can learn from more experienced international carriers?
The first two research question clearly relates to the examination of Air China’s strategic choices in light of the open skies agreement and how these have resulted in the realized performance. The next question relates to the idea of stretching of the domestically acquired- flagship status based, brand recognition into an internationally acclaimed brand. A key indicator for the same is quality and value that is associated with the brand. The final question is in the domain of lessons learned more-so strategic lessons in the aftermath of the open skies and with a comparative context of more experienced transnational carriers. This completes the loop by looking at learning in context of strategic choices and performance
 
1.4 Outline of the Dissertation1.4论文大纲
This dissertation presents a literature review in the next chapter. The chapter takes off by a review the global airline industry, open skies agreement and the airlines under purview with reference to past information and research. This is in addition to and an extension of the background presented here. The literature review then contextualizes extant research – broadly in the areas of strategy, organisation learning and transnational aspects as discussed under the discussion on research questions above. The methodology and approach chapter that follows the literature review moves forward to discuss how the indicators from a synthesis of the literature review are developed into an instrument, and associated, data, sampling, approach and methods in analyses aspects, among other aspects. The findings chapter provide an objective outlay of the analysis from a questionnaire study and then the discussions chapter provides and interpretative discussion on the same. Finally the conclusions reflect back on the aims of the research as operationalised under the research questions to also provide recommendations for strategy and for future research in the area.
本论文在下一章进行文献综述。本章首先回顾了全球航空业、开放天空协议和范围内的航空公司,并参考了过去的信息和研究。这是对背景的补充和延伸。然后,文献综述将现有的研究置于背景中——在战略、组织学习和跨国方面的广泛研究领域,如上述研究问题的讨论中所讨论的。文献综述之后的方法学和方法章节进一步讨论了如何从文献综述的综合指标发展成为一种工具,并在分析方面关联数据、抽样、方法和方法,以及其他方面。调查结果章节提供了一个客观支出的分析,从一个问卷研究,然后讨论章节提供和解释讨论相同。最后,在研究问题下,结论反映了研究的目标,也为该领域的策略和未来研究提供了建议。
 
Chapter 2: Literature Review第二章:文献综述
2.1 Global Airline Industry, Open Skies and Air China2.1全球航空业、开放天空与中国国航
The AT Kearney’s (2008) report on the global outlook for the airline industry presents several noteworthy points. It posits that returns are lower than the cost of capital, and that oil prices have caused a dramatic decline in US business conditions with consumer confidence at an all time low since 2001. It further argues that growth looks better in emerging markets like China, tight credit norms are affecting U.S and Europe while excess capacity is a big issue to tackle with efficiency lifts being very critical across the board. In addition the argument for open skies to intensify competition is also driven home. This comprehensive scenario suggests that there is an opportunity for airlines in the growing/emerging markets to usurp dominant international carriers if they pull their act together. The overall crisis scenario has more negatives for the bigger carriers that are outside emerging markets. However, experience, network and resource muscle are keeping them ahead. The Chinese airline market is probably the biggest opportunity to gain fresh turf and revenues given its relative robustness in recent times.
科尔尼公司(2008)关于航空业全球前景的报告提出了几点值得注意的地方。它假设,回报率低于资本成本,油价导致美国商业环境急剧下滑,消费者信心处于2001年以来的最低点。报告进一步指出,中国等新兴市场的增长看起来更好,信贷规范的收紧正影响着美国和欧洲,而产能过剩是一个需要解决的大问题,而提高整体效率至关重要。此外,开放天空以加强竞争的论点也得到了充分的论证。这种全面的情况表明,在不断增长的/新兴市场,如果航空公司齐心协力,就有机会取代占主导地位的国际航空公司。对于新兴市场以外的大型航空公司来说,危机的总体情况有更多的负面影响。然而,经验、网络和资源力量使他们保持领先。鉴于中国航空市场近年来相对稳健,它可能是获得新地盘和收入的最大机会。
 
The Chinese flagship carrier ‘Air China’ today is the new generation of what was the “Air China” established on 1988. It has come together as a merger of the erstwhile Air China, National Aviation Company and China Southwest Airlines. With this strategic reshaping event in the aviation history of China that happened in 2002, air China has taken giant leaps in trying to become a globally recognized player in the airlines industry over a short time frame. Its sustained profitability is a matter of pride and a signifier of the potential in and of emerging markets. Despite global downturns in profitability which have been a concern for Air China also, its performance is much better than most other global and all domestic players (Airchina.com, 2008).

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The company has strategic targets that indicate its ambitious designs despite its nascent lineage. However, these, that of competitive lead, continuous quality, service and profitability improvements with unique and memorable experiences for customers (Airchina.com, 2008) are but rather generic across airlines and also conjoint agendas. Operationalising this strategy has seen quality impetus that we will discuss later, trying to learn from and network with other airlines, among others. This national carrier of China has joined the Star alliance in 2007 and its cooperation with leading airlines around the globe has seen it expand massively to nearly nine hundred locations around the globe. It has its catch phrases to help keep strategy and performance feedback simple and translatable into new initiatives and improvements. One such aspect is to do with service and is called ‘four hearts- implying reassurance, satisfaction, easiness and sensation’ (Airchina.com, 2008). Other configuration aspects that link with the sales network expansion, working to fine tune the much used frequent flyer tactic, and using supplier and partner networks to improve capacity utilization and efficiency.
 
It has tried to outdo professional and technical capacities deployed by international airlines, whether it be pilot and staff training, motivating service operations and innovations through awards, and as aforesaid, using symbolic emblems for quality in general that can make the strategic intent transmittable through the organisation at all levels. Branding at a global level has always been a concern worked at audaciously with domestic dominance never being in question (Ahmed et al, 2006; Airchina.com, 2008).
它试图超越国际航空公司部署的专业和技术能力,无论是飞行员和员工培训,通过奖励激励服务运营和创新,如上所述,在一般情况下,使用象征符号的质量标志,可以使战略意图在组织的所有层次上传播。在全球层面的品牌建设一直是一个问题,大胆地在国内主导地位从来没有问题(艾哈迈德等人,2006年;Airchina.com, 2008)。
 
In 2007, Air China reported an increase of about fourteen percent in its operating revenue. The growth in passenger and cargo services fuelled by economic growth and also the impending Olympics seem to have contributed. Managing efficiency to make sure that capacity utilization and efficiency in operations given the fuel crisis deliver to their best might have paid off to some degree. However, rising operating costs have taken hold given the oil price scenario. While hedging has helped counter fuel price impact it is not a stable measure (ATKearney, 2008). The current scenario is not bleak by far – the overtime trends are of concern given the uncertainties that prevail in the aviation market and the intensifying competition under the open skies agreement.
 
Air China has focused on transfer traffic to increase passenger uptake while opening up steadily on international routes. Nearly thirty five percent of its routes are now international operating across nearly thirty countries. The revenue chunk from domestic operations stills makes the bulk. Having joined the Star Alliance recently Air China has made path breaking improvements in quality, service and has upgraded both its fleet and support infrastructure like under the new terminus at Beijing also hosting the alliance. The operating performance of Air China is markedly higher than other Chinese airlines including Eastern China Airlines. Domestic competition had defeated efforts at alliances here but the climate of uncertainty that has had international airlines pitching for co-operation saw Air China enter the prestigious Star Alliance. The inclusion was also triggered by promise in the emerging markets as aforesaid.
 
Being the largest carrier in China with over 20000 employees and well trained crew who are more abreast with international service norms and issues holds Air China in good ground when making internationalization efforts. Domestic market is a stable resource mooring for the Airline that seeks to become a globally renowned brand in the industry. It makes for a perfect alliance partner for international majors given that at the onset of the decade China was recorded to have the highest percentage increase in passenger traffic of about 11.50%. US on the other hand had the lowest at -6.30% (Ahmed at al, 2008). Since 9/11 things have finally shaken the slumber in the U.S but fresh crisis of rising fuel prices and capital crunch have nullified the recovery.
 
2.2 United Airlines: The lineage and Chinese Context联合航空公司:传承与中国背景
United is one of the oldest airlines. It claims its genesis in W.T. Varney’s airmail operations in the later 1920s. United went with the fortunes of the times whether it be the Wars or the economic boom thereafter which saw rapid expansion on the one hand and monopolistic competition on the other. The 1970s were true crisis times for United as it went through several leadership hands and tried to remain afloat during turbulent economic times. The era of stability thereafter has seen United become the largest employee majority owned company in the world. While this has had positive implications on service quality, it is also not without its downsides. Arguably employee lobbies resulted in factionalism at times but overall the service philosophy due to this ownership has taken great leaps, and the ‘friendly skies’ slogan got replaced with a more ambitious slogan of ‘rising’. This was probably as much aspiration based as it was given deregulation across the World. New economies and markets beckoned with domestic competition being as intense as ever. The 9/11 crisis probably hit the United the hardest. However, with government support, employee cooperation and smart financial management United managed to stay afloat and recover as a strong player in the international market. While it shares the industry downturn of recent times, experience and employee ownership hold it in good grounds to face competition and explore new markets (United.com, 2008).
联合航空是最古老的航空公司之一。它声称它的起源是W.T. Varney在20世纪20年代后期的航空邮件业务。美联航随着时代的发展而发展无论是战争还是之后的经济繁荣一方面是快速扩张,另一方面是垄断竞争。20世纪70年代是曼联真正的危机时期,它经历了几任领导,并试图在动荡的经济时期维持下去。在此后的稳定时期,美联航成为了世界上最大的员工持股公司。虽然这对服务质量有积极的影响,但也不是没有缺点。可以说,员工游说有时会导致派系之争,但总体而言,由于这种所有权,服务理念已经有了很大的飞跃,“友好的天空”的口号被更有雄心的口号“崛起”所取代。这可能是基于世界各地放松管制的愿望。随着国内竞争一如既往地激烈,新的经济和市场开始出现。9/11危机可能对曼联打击最大。然而,在政府的支持、员工的合作和明智的财务管理下,美联航成功地维持了下去,并在国际市场上恢复了强大的角色。虽然它分享了最近的行业低迷时期,经验和员工所有权使它在面对竞争和探索新市场方面有良好的基础(United.com, 2008)。
 
In March 2008 United Airlines won the duel with other US based airlines like the Continental- to run daily flights between Washington D.C and Beijing. The implications for the United home – the Dulles airport is massive. This includes a boost through employment among other things much needed in the slumping economy. With the Beijing Olympics then just around the corner this meant even more money. Despite the open skies agreement the number of carriers from US in Chinese air space are limited by the government and the routes that open up thus draw fierce competition amongst prospective airlines (asiatravel.com, 2007).
2008年3月,联合航空公司在与大陆航空公司等其他美国航空公司的竞争中获胜,赢得了华盛顿和北京之间的每日航班。对曼联主场的影响——杜勒斯机场是巨大的。这包括通过就业来促进经济衰退所急需的其他措施。随着北京奥运会的临近,这意味着更多的钱。尽管有开放天空协议,美国航空公司在中国领空的数量受到政府的限制,开放的航线因此吸引了潜在航空公司之间的激烈竞争(asiatravel.com, 2007)。
 
Besides increasing communication, this has special implications for international carriers that are facing the brunt of global oil price rise and uptake of luxury class travel (ATKearney, 2008). The forecast of emerging markets being the place to be discussed before has seen airline industries queue up for the Chinese airspace. The success is not only in winning amongst peers but also by getting a bulk of revenue off Chinese airlines like Air China who have local advantages but when it comes to international travel where the clientele is mixed they have less experience.
 
The bids draw great political clout that pitch in with one airline or the other. With nearly 90000 people moving between China and Washington the market is serious. Us airlines like Continental, American and Northwest are serious contenders for the overall Chinese air space and are carving out their own niche for instance the connection between Shanghai and New York that continental offers (Asia travel.com, 2007).
 
The star alliance connection between Air China and United comes to the fore here as this alliance allows United to access more routes around Beijing. Clearly the alliance has a cooperation agenda at the fore but competition remains within alliance partners also. On the one hand they rope in customers based on loyalty points, better cumulative resource strength, and wider route configurations, among others – while on the other they vie for getting more and more alliance passengers as primary to themselves.
 
2.3 Network effects, Quality and Service Value网络效应、质量和服务价值
Quality drives with an international value paradigm are a key indicator of aspirations to become a globally renowned brand. Network effects like that of prestigious alliances and by virtue of passenger traffic in the area given events such as the Olympics and generally favorable economic climate also augment the potential.
具有国际价值范式的品质驱动是渴望成为全球知名品牌的关键指标。像声望很高的联盟这样的网络效应,以及由于奥运会等事件和普遍有利的经济气候,该地区的客运量也增加了潜力。
 
Air China identified key business activities to enhance service quality and by extension value perceptions in customers. These were: “flight service (including off flight), people management (employee satisfaction leading to better customer service); supplier network management; technology adoption and integration; passenger perception management; and customer satisfaction measurement and complaint handling” (Ahmed et al, 2006).
 
Under these, customizing services for individual customers is considered important. At the same times basic satisfying aspects are to be ensured before specialist and high order services are to be configured. This is in line with the ‘hygiene -motivators’ theory of Frederick Hertzberg (1959). Working to deliver a unique experience through incorporating attractive cultural aspects that are also internationally appealing has also been on the agenda fueling creative insights and challenges in the process. It has not been without innovation meeting efficiency and operational bottleneck for example to stretch customer choices by providing onboard menus that met with some embarrassing failures to keep adequate stock of items. This was reworked with considerable focus on database management to record past preferences. Employee satisfaction and involvement at this stage is pivotal as they are central to service and in the airline business front end employee interface is critical for repeat business and reputation building. The people management agenda at Air China is closely juxtaposed with quality, the role of the manager in tying together people, and productivity and excellence stemming from motivated employees are all key tenets practiced with the adage that performance and quality issues begin at the top (Ahmed et al, 2006).
 
As far as network effects are concerned the company seeks to establish long term relations with suppliers for stability, assuredness and cost effectiveness. The product life cycle of the key artifact the aircraft also merits such an approach. Improvement needs, maintenance needs and incorporating new technology are connected issues where in-house capabilities are also important. The excellence 2008 programme works to look at technology as a nonhuman aspect and emphasizes the need for connection with people as pivotal in realizing developing capabilities. Processes and initiatives are kept simple for easy of delivery and communication – from the staff and to the customer respectively. The network effects Air China seeks stretch out to the customer through loyalty programmes and horizontally to partners with exchange and amalgamation of routes, loyalty points and information among others (Airchina.com, 2008).
 
Brand image as a natural and desired culmination of the aforesaid efforts takes number one priority, followed by scheduling which is closely connect with capacity utilization and efficiency. Interestingly pricing is at number six preceded by on and off board services and plane model (Ahmed et al, 2006). Clearly the agenda is to drive on quality first and be realistic about the associated price. This is a model very distinct from low cost short haul airlines and also some airlines in other emerging markets like Russia. This is also a bold step that underlines the agenda for brand recognition through quality and service value with a close perspective on customer needs.
 
2.4 Organisational Learning: Strategic Choices and Performance feedback组织学习:战略选择和绩效反馈
Organisational learning is understood as learning within the organisation and is complimented by the idea of learning by organisations as a distinct concept (Cyert and March, 1963; Senge, 1990). Overall the literature on learning with reference to organisations has a rather expansive lineage that is outside the scope of this study. In context of this study it is important to keep in mind the context that of learning from competitors and partners, learning from the experience of initiatives like those related to quality within the organisation, and learning from past direct and indirect experiences to counter environmental threats. These three issues will be central to the main research site Air China in context of learning. Competitive, growth and recognition aspirations that we have broadly contextualized so far will be of concern
组织学习被理解为组织内部的学习,并被组织学习作为一个独特的概念的想法所称赞(Cyert和March, 1963;圣吉,1990)。总体而言,有关组织学习的文献有一个相当广泛的谱系,超出了本研究的范围。在本研究的背景下,重要的是要牢记向竞争对手和合作伙伴学习的背景,从与组织内部质量相关的举措中学习的经验,以及从过去对抗环境威胁的直接和间接经验中学习。这三个问题将主要研究中心放在国航网站的背景下进行学习。到目前为止,我们已经广泛地考虑了竞争、增长和认可的愿望,这些愿望将是令人关切的
 
The literature on organisational learning and learning by organisations as distinguished above can be viewed from several lenses. The first is the human development lens which is at the heart of Air China’s people management orientation that drives everything else. The emphasis on simplifying inputs, delivery and adoption are all tied into the concern of this perspective. The individual’s orientation, capacities and motivation to learn are at the core of this lens. Also the stages and enablers that make learning effective are design issues to be implemented and monitored (e.g. Kolb, 1979; Argyris, 1978, 1986, 1992; Talbot and Harrow, 1993; Dixon, 1994).
 
The management science is essentially about information management. It is important to generate feedback from processes and operations again an important but not central issue. This is because while people management is supposed to motivate this automatically at Air China, the importance of effective processes to say generate employee and customer feedback cannot be ignored (e.g. Huber, 1991; Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995).
 
There are other lenses like the one that looks at organisation as a societal being and another that considers organisation from a productivity perspective only as far as learning is concerned (Easterby Smith, 1997). Both have consequences for efficiency and performance but alone do not suffice to deliver the needed learning for sustaining performance (e.g. Pettigrew, 1973; Hedberg, 1981; Talbot and Harrow, 1987; Buzzell and Gale, 1987). Easterby Smith (1997) has generated other perspectives from his extensive review of the growth of body in learning with reference to organisations. These include cultural and strategic lenses that are critical to appreciate given the globalization agenda to hand. The cultural multiplicity within organisations and the areas they operate is juxtaposed with increasing competitiveness as globalization becomes the order of the day for design and configuration of organisations and their goals (e.g. Shibata et al, 1991; Hamel and Prahalad, 1989,1993).
 
While I explore these lenses here in context of the Chinese aviation industry and Air China in particular it is useful to refer back to the comparative frame of United Airlines being used. The context of learning also becomes important as experiences, the feedback and the realization of this feedback into improvements are not imitable but need to be adapted (Nickerson and Zenger, 2002; McDermott and O’Dell, 2001). With Air China drawing on conventional strategic and tactical threads used in the airline industry to fuel its mindset in this nascent stage of development care should be taken to recognize that it is a different organisation especially when indirect (experience of other airlines) are learned from (Schwab and Miner, 2001; Rogers, 1997).
当我在这里探讨这些镜头的背景下,中国航空工业,特别是中国国际航空公司,它是有用的回顾比较框架,联合航空公司正在使用。学习的背景也变得很重要,因为经验,反馈和实现这种反馈的改进是不可模仿的,但需要调整(Nickerson和Zenger, 2002;麦克德莫特和奥戴尔,2001)。与国航借鉴传统的战略和战术线程用于航空工业燃料的心态在这新兴发展阶段应该注意要认识到这是一个不同的组织特别是间接(其他航空公司的经验)从(施瓦布和矿工,2001;罗杰斯,1997)。
 
This is important because learning needs to translate into fine tuning the strategic frame. Choices that work need to be distilled from choices that don’t. However there is the simplicity agenda to contend with here (Miller, 1993). Overtime this implies bracketing and focusing on an industry wide panacea or select aspects which are considered pivotal to performance while others are made dormant. A non-performing element whether it be pricing that takes a back seat to people management may be the cutting edge one is looking for when the aspect of employee management has been honed by all competitors to an extreme. Innovations lie in such dormant aspects and creativity within the organisation needs to be fuelled to encourage bouncing of new ideas outside the confines of what is taken as doing well in the present time (March, 1991; Miller, 1990, 1993).
 
The globalization agenda makes this even more crucial as performance feedback is subject to more ambiguity than ever before. Outside once domestic arena interpretation of performance is often more difficult and mistakes can be costly. For Air China its bold steps like alliancing, technology and excellence drive that seems to be driven around dominant features of what has worked in the Airline industry may be risky. The learning agenda from United that is decades older than it could be to examine the shocks it faced when threading a similar path rather than what works for it and other more experienced transnational airlines (Mintzberg, 1979)
 
2.5 The transnational context: Establishing global recognition and competitiveness跨国环境:建立全球认可度和竞争力
Globalization is a phenomenon that most industries and major companies therein choose, strive for and adapt to. On the one hand lies the legacy of domestic or local experience and competencies shaped in that mould, while on the other lies the challenge to customize and adapt this ‘strategic configuration’ to market realities of different international markets (Mintzberg, et al, 1998; Mintzberg, 1979). The multiple subsidiaries and spread across countries creates the need for multidimensional competencies that are flexible. These also come with the principle competency of being able to choose the right mix and leverage it to local realities. The relationship between intermediaries and with the parent /home unit is important resource strength. The perspective of being able to adapt, and at the same time identify with the parent organisation brings to the fore the important aspect of creating a balanced interdependency (Bartlett and Ghoshal 1987). Going trans-national thus needs to be a carefully crafted initiative with the aforesaid issues and a host of variables to be considered. These variables include the economic climate, and industry level variables.
全球化是一个现象,大多数行业和主要公司选择,争取和适应。一方面是国内或本地经验和在这种模式中形成的竞争力的遗产,而另一方面是对不同国际市场的市场现实进行定制和调整的挑战(Mintzberg等人,1998年;明茨伯格,1979)。多个子公司和跨国家的传播创造了对灵活的多维能力的需求。这些还伴随着能够选择正确的组合并利用其适应当地现实的主要能力。中介机构与母公司/母公司之间的关系是重要的资源力量。适应能力的观点,同时与母组织的认同带来了创造平衡相互依赖的重要方面(Bartlett和Ghoshal 1987)。因此,跨国经营必须是一项精心设计的倡议,要考虑上述问题和许多变数。这些变量包括经济气候和行业水平的变量。
 
Baden fuller and Stopford (1991) provide a set of considerations that impact on the profitability of a global strategy (figure 1). While these are generic considerations that point that is again emphasized in shaping of this framework is that competing in the transnational market is a very distinct foray than domestic competition. Being a domestically profitable and successful firm will not imply that the same success will be repeated in the international market (Rangan, 2000). The company has to carefully stretch and leverage (Hamel and Prahalad, 1993) its value set and configurations (Prahalad and Hamel, 1990) so as to maintain a balance between the stability of its configuration and at the same time coordinate the diverse subsidiaries to gain maximum synergy and interdependent benefits (Porter, 1986). Air China with its nascent lineage that goes back just two decades, in its present form it being around for only a few years has a lot of lessons to draw on. Its dominance as the domestic player in China has spurred it on but its transnational success is still an early call to make. The importance of being part of the Star alliance brings a novel perspective to going transnational. The interface with more experienced airlines and the trade off of benefits from hosting each other in home countries is mutually beneficial. Alliances are crucial not only given the airline industry needs but also they bring a novel enabling and risk averse perspective to global business.
Baden fuller和Stopford(1991)提供的一组因素影响盈利能力的全球战略(图1)。虽然这些是通用的考虑这一点,再次强调在塑造这个框架是在跨国市场竞争比国内竞争是一个非常不同的尝试。作为一个国内盈利和成功的公司并不意味着同样的成功将在国际市场上重复(Rangan, 2000)。公司必须仔细地伸展和杠杆Hamel and Prahalad, 1993)其值设置和配置(Prahalad and Hamel, 1990),以维持一个平衡稳定的配置,同时协调不同的子公司获得最大的协同作用和相互依存的利益(Porter, 1986)。国航的历史只有20年,但以目前的形式来看,它只有短短几年的历史,有很多经验可以借鉴。它在中国国内市场的主导地位推动了它的发展,但它在跨国市场的成功仍是一个早期的决定。成为星空联盟的一部分的重要性为跨国经营带来了新的视角。与更有经验的航空公司的接触,以及相互交换在母国举办航班的好处,是互利的。联盟是至关重要的,不仅考虑到航空业的需求,而且还为全球商业带来了一种新的使能和规避风险的视角。


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